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Hybrid bearings eliminate scarring of races
Advanced motors can electrically damage steel bearings. 


S13N4 M50
STEEL B642/440C STEEL 52100 STEEL 
Density (g/cc): 3.16 7.6 7.8 7.8 
Hardness (Rc) 78 64 62 66 
Elasticmodulus(Gpa) 320 190 200 210 
Poisson’s ratio 0.26 0.28 0.28 0.28 
Coefficient of thermal expansion(1 0-6/C)(RT to 800C) 2.9 12.3 10.1 10.9 
Maximum use temperature (CC) 1,000 320 260 180 
Fatigue life, 110 (relative to M50) 100x 1 0.5x 0.1x 
Wear resistance (relative to M50) 100x 1 0.1x 0.1x 

The inner and outer races of antifriction bearings often become frosted, fluted, or get a corrugated pattern imprinted on them. These are not mechanical scars but are due to electromagnetic forces and can lead to bearing failure. They are usually found in modem systems that routinely feature pulse-modulated adjustable-speed motors and inverters with high switching frequencies and short rise times. These designs can transmit the rotor voltage through the motor shaft because voltage exceeds the dielectric strength of lubricants on the bearings. The resulting current flows from the shaft and lubricant, causing the frosting, fluting, and generating the corrugated pattern. 

One long-used method of minimizing current flow through bearings and gears is to passively ground the shaft with a mechanical device. Unfortunately, newer variable-speed motors often generate shaft-to-frame voltages that send current across bearings despite the grounding device. 

A better solution substitutes ceramic bearings for the more traditional, chrome-steel counterparts, while retaining the steel inner and outer races. These hybrid bearings, as they are known, eliminate scarring and also run cooler due to less microweld adhesion.

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